Pratibha Prakashan

Verbal Forms in the Rgveda

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About the Book

The present book highlights the study on verbal forms in the Rgveda (mandala-IV) which clearly shows verbal formations and their identifications verb's in all their conjugations, tenses and moods of the application of Paninian rules of accent and Sayanas interpretation makes the study more interesting and at last the statistical analysis gives a clear picture of the verbal forms in its use with peculiarity.

About the Author

Dr. (Mrs.) Shantipriya Devi born (4-4-1965) at village Latara, Raj Ramapur of the then Puri district and now is Nayagarh district of Orissa. She has outstanding career to her credit and stood first class first in Graduation level B.A. Sanskrit (Hons.) in Utkal University in the year 1984. She completed her post-Graduation in Sanskrit from Utkal University in 1986.

M. Phil. in 1988 and Ph.D in 1992 from Poona University respectively. She has contributed many research papers to various national and international conferences and many are published in standard Indological journals.

At present she is engaging P.G. classes in the Department of Sanskrit, Utkal University and a guest faculty in the Utkal University of Culture, Bhubaneswar, Orissa.


The research in Veda is a challenging job for any Sanskritist. In spite of different attempts to know the Vedas, they have always evaded all attempts of Vedic scholars for their correct interpretation and understanding. Like mercury, the conclusions; drawn by applying one method to interpret them, slip away from hand if another method is applied. In this conflict of methods and conclusions, the research scholars stand non-plussed. Different methods like mythological, linguistic, historical, statistical, mathematical, astronomical, philosophical etc. have been applied by scholars, yet no single method had uptill now yielded any satisfactory, consistent and all-comprehensive meaning of the Vedas. In spite of this failure, the Vedic scholars tirelessly continue to understand the Veda.

Of all the methods of Vedic interpretation, the mythological and linguistic approaches have given some satisfactory results and a fairly good picture of the Vedic mythology can be built up. The linguistic and philological approaches have given a fairly satisfactory theory of the assumption of the Indo-European languages as the parent-language of many European and Indian languages. One is, therefore, assured of some concrete results, and hence is inclined to apply the linguistic and philological method for Vedic interpretation.

The Vedas are basically and primarily a literature, expressed in terms of a speech or language. This language has stood the test of time for over five thousand years and has come down to us in tact through oral tradition,—thanks to the labour of Vedic reciters. As such, the Vedic language is sufficiently faithful to its times, speakers and environment. It is no surprise therefore, that the linguistic approach to Vedic interpretation gives out a fairly good picture of the Vedic times.

If we study the Vedic Sanskrit, called as Old Indo-Aryan, we find that it abounds in various types of formations both nominal and verbal. It thus betrays the nouns, their declension and derivatives; the verbs, their conjugation and derivatives, both on transformational and non-transformational level. It contains the compounds and the denominatives as well as the feminine formations. It thus possesses a vast treasure of vocabulary and a great amount of grammar and linguistic peculiarities. In view of this jungle or crowd of word-structures, one is at a loss as to where one should start the linguistic study of the Vedas from.

As is clear, the linguistic study comprises the study of the following six main linguistic categories of the language. The language is divided into these six main categories for the purpose of convenient study. They are: Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Accent and Meaning. Since we want to find out the meaning of the Veda, we have to exclude meaning and concentrate on the five remaining categories. Out of the remaining five, the categories of Phonetics and Phonology do not content the element of meaning at all. We, therefore, leave them and study only the remaining three categories of Morphology, Syntax and Accent.

Out of these three again. syntax of a language is nothing but the arrangement or declension /conjugation of morphemes in the sentence. Our study of the language form semantic point of view, therefore, becomes restricted to only the two categories of morphology and accent. So far as the morphology of the Sanskrit language (and for that matter of any language) is concerned, we get two main types of morphemes; they are: the nouns and the verbs which give full meaning to the sentence and in general the language. Out of these two types of morphemes again, the number of nominal morphemes in Sanskrit is very vast; it will not be an exaggeration to say that the number is innumerable. We, therefore, again restrict our study to the verbal morphemes and their forms and conjugation only.

The scope of the present thesis is, therefore, the study of the formations of Vedic verbs in all their conjugation and tenses and moods.

The Sanskrit nouns are called by Panini by the technical term `prratiadika'; and the Sanskrit verbs, listed very carefully in the Paninian dhatupatha go by the name 'dhatu.

We have thus restricted our scope only to the dhatus; but even the study of the dhatus assumes a vast proportion from their forms to their meaning as based on the usage in the language. The scope of the study of the dhatus again seems to be restricted only to only the grammatical recognition of the forms of the dhatus by the author of the present book. And she does not seem to be wrong there.

But even this grammatical recognition of the verbal form is also not an easy thing. Because, a Sanskrit verb exhibits variations in their conjugation on the basis of their ganas or groups, lakaras or tenses and moods, padas as well as on the basis of number (i.e. vacana) and person (purusa). Moreover, it can be conjugated on the trans formational level also with all these variations (except galas). Thus even the simple, formal study of the grammar of the dhatus also presents a number of difficulties.


The present work is a revised version of my Ph.D. Thesis submitted to the University of Poona in 1992. The book is based on the Verbal study of Rgveda Mandala IV. I was very much interested in the Subjects like Veda and Grammar and wanted to go into details. But slowly I was dragged to the field of Vedic language as I concentrated to know the Vedic culture. Unless the Vedic language is properly analysed, no one will be able to know the culture and for that purpose, I have undertaken the study of the verbal forms of Rgveda. As it is very difficult to study the entire verbal forms of Rgveda by a single person, I took up the Mandala IV for my study. By that time the work of Prof. G.B. Palsule was readily available on this subject covering Mandala VI which gave me much inspiration to undertake such a subject.

For that purpose, I undertook first fifteen hymns of the fourth Mandala for M. Phil degree and then took up the entire Mandala for Ph.D. work. The work basically covers the identification of verbal forms, application of Paninian rules, accent, tenses, moods and Sayanas interpretation. The comparison is also made by analysing interpretations of Prof[/product_description] [product_video]
Item Code: NAO524
Cover: Hardcover
Edition: 2003
Publisher: Pratibha Prakashan
ISBN: 9788177020649
Language: English
Size: 8.5 inch X 5.5 inch
Pages: 190
Other Details: Weight of the Book: 360 gms[/product_video]


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