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The Wonderful Mysteries of Ramayana

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The Ramayana was composed first by the sage Valmiki who happens to be foremost of all the poets in the country, which relates to the story of the Rama, the son of Dasaratha, the Iksvaku king of the Ayodhya. It has seven Kandas starting from Bala-kunda or Adi-kanda and concluding with Uttara-kanda, completing the story from the beginning to the end. Some of the Western scholars like Bulcke and others, besides also a few from the country claim that the first (Bala-kunda or Adi-kanda) and the last i.e., Uttara-kanda, are the subsequent additions to the Ramayana of Valmiki. They have also contested Rama o be the incarnation of Visnu. These scholars further believe that the incarnation aspect of Rama is highlighted in these two Kandas, besides some of their interpretations which were added subsequently to the various episodes in the epic of Valmiki. In this connection it may be pointed out that the following points have to be kept in view while dealing with the questions of these interpolations-

(i) The entire story of the Ramayana is quite a well-knit story and in case, even one episode is removed from the poetry, the void felt would be too obvious.

(ii) The total number of verses have been counted as twenty -four thousand and in case the theory of interpolation is accepted, the very structure of the epic would be in jeopardy.

(iii) Though the scholars have come forward with the theory of interpolation were incorporated, nor the persons or the poets who did so, and much less, of the reasons for such interpolations.

(iv) In case the Bala -kanda is removed from the Ramayana, the entire epic would become headless, leaving no trace of the antiquity of the solar dynasty, and several other episodes, like the yajna of Dasaratha; the birth of the sons of Dasaratha; the marriage of Sita and her other sisters with the Ayodhya princes. This would leave the epic incomplete.

(v) The Uttara-kanda, to mind, is as important as the other Kandas, because the main difficulty in treating it to be a later addition, is that the very authorship of the epic would be in jeopardy, because the main difficulty in treating it to be a later additions, is that the very authorship of the epic would be in jeopardy, because it is in this Kanda alone, that the authorship of the epic is testified. In case it is treated to be a later addition, the authorship of the epic cannot be established with any degree of authenticity which can hardly be appreciated. It would be quite different to study the spirit or environments in which the work was created. Needless to say that the deep sense of devotion of Valmiki had been responsible for the creation of this work which had been a prestigious one and a world renowned epic, of which the country would always be proud of.

In the foregoing account, it has been possible to bring home the point that the portions of the epic relating to the incarnation aspect of Visnu on the form of Rama, can hardly be treated as interpolations, unless undeniable and quite convincing proof is available in that regard.

From the Jacket

The Ramayana was composed first by the sage Valmiki who happens to be the foremost of all the poets in the country, which relates to the story of the Rama, the son of Dasaratha, the Iksvaku king of Ayodhya. It has seven Kandas starting from Bala-kanda and concluding with Uttara- kanda, completing the story from the beginning to the end.

There are various versions of Ramayanapopular throughout India. Not only this, the popularity of the story of Rama also crossed the Indian frontier and reached the countries of the east like Burma, Cambodia, Thailand, Malaysia, Japan, China and Tibet.

This book has been compiled from over twenty different Ramayanas and other ancient texts.


  Introduction xiii
(a) The need for incarnation 8
(b) The boons and curses relating to the incarnation 9
1 Bala- kanda 1
(1) Abduction of Kausalya by Ravana 1
(2) Saturn's evil eye over Ayodhya and Dasaratha's friendship with Jatayu 4
(3) Dasaratha received a boon from Saturn 8
(4) The Courageous Kaikeyi 11
(5) Dasaratha's first boon of Kaikeyi 11
(6) Kaikeyi receives another boon 12
(7) Summoning of the sage Rsyasrnga to bring rains in the kingdom of Lomapada 13
(8) Stealing of Payasam by a she-eagle 17
(9) Ravana's attempts to kill child Rama 17
(10) Rama's sports during his childhood 18
(11) Dasaratha's attempt to deceitfully send Bharata and Satrughna with Visvamitra instead of Rama and Laksmana 18
(12) The story of Padmasri 20
(13) The story of Ahalya (from various angles) 22
(14) Rama saves the life of Ravana in Svayamvara 29
(15) Birth of Sita (Various views): 30
  (i) Daughter of Janaka;(ii) Born out of earth; (iii) Birth in Lanka;(iv) Daughter of Ravana;(v) Born out of Lotus;(vi) Born from the blood of the sages; (vii) Born from the gems emerging out of the fire-altar; (viii) Birth from a fruit or a tree;(ix) Born out the fire-alter of Janaka; (x) Born from a tree branch;(xi) Born from a tree;(xii) Born of the Peacock egg, (xiii) Daughter of Dasatatha  
(16) Friendship with Guhaka 35
2 Ayodhya- kanda 37
(1) Different reasons for the exile of Rama 37
(2) Cause of Kaikeyi's defame 38
(3) Cause of enmity of Manthara with Rama 39
(4) Miracle of Bharadvaja 39
(5) Surprise about sandals of Rama 42
3 Aranya-kanda 43
(1) Pinda- dana of sand by Sita for Dasaratha 43
(2) Sita's curses to Tulasi, Brahmana, the Phalgu rive and blessing to the Vatavrksa 43
(3) Story of the sage Agastya and IIavala 46
(4) Creation of shadow Sita before abduction 47
(5) Laksmana draws lines around Sita's cottage with his bow 50
(6) Mustered seeds used for the protection of Sita 54
(7) Encounter of Ravana with Sita 54
(8) Digging of Earth by Ravana for carrying Sita 55
(9) Abduction of Sita denied 62
(10) The greatness of Sabari 63
4 Kiskindha-kanda 64
(1) Hanuman recognizes Rama and Laksmana 64
(2) Rama displays his four-armed from before Hanuman 64
(3) Tara's curse to Rama after the death of Bali 66
5 Sundara - kanda 70
(1) The Bird Suparsva obstructs Ravana's journey to Lanka 70
(2) Story of the birth of Hanuman as narrated by Jambavan 72
(3) Hanuman feels hungry at Asokavana but refuses to accept an ornament from Sita to by eatables in exchange for it from the market place. 76
(4) Hanuman makes Mandodari beat Ravana 78
(5) Hanuman makes the beards and moustaches of Ravana to burn 78
(6) Talk between Kubera and Vibhisana 79
(7) Siva's advice to Vibhisana 83
(8) Squirrel's help in construction of the bridge 85
(9) Hanuman gets angry with Nala 87
(10) The case of Govardhana 88
(11) Extinguishes lamps of Lanka 89
(12) Extinguishing the fire of Hanuman's tail 90
(13) Return of hanuman to Rama, after meeting Sita with a letter from Brahma 91
(14) Hanuman's arrival in the asrama of Narada on his return journey 93
(15) Hanuman's arrival in the hermitage of a sage 94
6 Yuddha- kanda/Lanka-kanda 96
1 Killing of the Great warriors 96
(i) Fall of Makaraksa 96
(ii) Fall of Taranisena in the battlefield 100
(iii) The killing of Virabahu, Dhumraksa and Bhasmalocana in the battlefield 114
2 Misleading of Sugriva by the demons 130
3 Killing of illusory Sita 131
4(a) Rising of the Sun at midnight 136
(b) Release of the Sun - god from the armpit of Hanuman 138
5 Ravana's prayer to Ambika 140
6 Brahma's proposal for the performing of yajna for the killing of Ravana 142
7 Rama's prayer to Durga 143
(a) Advice to bring blue lotus 145
(b) Hanuman brings the blue lotus 146
(c) Offering of the blue lotus flowers to the goddess by Rama and stealing of a lotus by Ambika 146
(d) Rama Prays to the goddess again 147
(e) Rama's request to the goddess 149
(f) Rama asks for a boon form the goddess 150
(g) The goddess grants the boon to Rama, consigning of the image of the goddess on the tenth day of the moon 151
8 Brhaspati's reciting of the Candipatha for Ravana and Hanuman's erasing of a Candi manuscript 152
9 Hanuman steals the death arrow of Ravana 153
10 Ahi- Mahiravana carries Rama and Laksmana to Mahikavati at the command of Ravana 155
(a) Hanuman proceeds to Mahikavati- meeting between Hanuman and Makaradhvaja 157
(b) Meeting between Hanuman and Makari; entry of Hanuman in the temple of the goddess 159
(c) Ahi-Mahiravana move Rama and Laksmana in the temple of Bhadrakali, Rama adores (Hanuman) - the goddess; Hanuman takes to his original form 161
(d) Killing of Ahiravana and Mahiravana 163
(e) Candrasena reveals to Hanuman, the reason for Mahiravana's taking many forms and the remedy for his death 165
11 Nectar vase in Indrajit's body 168
12 Fall of the arm of Indrajit in the Courtyard of Ravana and Sulocana comes to know of the death to her husband 168
13 Sulocana makes the face of Indrajit's head of her smile 171
14 Ravana created fake Rama and Laksmana and made them enter Asokavana to meet Sita 174
15 Appearing of Marut as Janaka before Sita 175
16 Knowing bout Mandodari, Rama pronounces arrangement against her widowhood 185
17 Sita proceeds to meet Rama and Mandodari curses Sita 186
18 Mandodari's marriage with Vibhisana 189
19 Hanuman - the affectionate son 190
(i) Meets his mother on his return from Lanka 190
(ii) Saves the life of the king of Kasi at the command of his mother 192
20 (a) Projection of Rama's name by Hanuman by tearing out his chest 193
(b) Meals to the monkeys and their return 194
21 Rama turns as Krsna 195
22 Hanuman eats in the leaf-plate of Rama 197
23 Importance of tail of Hanuman 198
(a) Importance of tail 198
(b) Extinguishing fire of the tail 199
24 Quarrel between Siva and Parvati 199
7 Uttara-kanda 202
1 Events relating to Rama 202
(a) Travels of Rama 202
(b) Yajna horse turns into the divine form 204
2 Events relating to Sita 206
(a) Golden image of Sita 206
(b) Creation of Kusa by Valmiki 209
(c) Hanuman made captive by Lava and Kusa 211
(d) Return of Valmiki and revival of all the brothers 213
3 Events concerning Laksmana 215
(a) Observing of Brahmcharyaand remaining without sleep by Laksmana for fourteen years 215
(b) The kundalas 218
4 Events concerning Hanuman 219
(i) Details concerning the birth of Hanuman- 219
(a) Son of the Wind-god, (b) Son of Siva, (c) Son of Rama, (d) Born of Payasam, (e) Incarnation of Rudra, (f) Incarnation of Nandi,(g) Narayana's amsa,(h) Evidence of Jain texts, (i) The Laos Tradition, (j) Evidence of other texts-(i) Skanda Purana, (ii) Ananda Ramayana,(iii) Madhava Kandali Ramayana (Chapter-3), (iv) Seri Rama,(v) Paumacariyu.  
(ii) Visiting the asrama of Trnabindu 234
(iii) Restores belongings to the Brahmanas 235
(iv) Carries club of Sahasabhuja 239
(v) The old age 240
(vi) Death and Survival from it 242
(vii) Use of Yantra 250
(viii) Subjugation of Saturn 250
(ix) Hanuman breaks the arrow bridge made by Arjuna 252
(x) Killing of the Mulakasura by Sita 254
5 Events relating to Ravana 256
(a) Ravana proceeds to Bali's abode for a combat 255
(b) Bali enslaves Ravana 256
(c) Bali freed Ravana from the bondage 257
(d) Release of Ravana by Kartivirya Arjuna at the request of Pulastya 258
(e) Ravana humiliates Vedavati 259
(f) Insult of Ravana and pronouncing the curse on Ravana by Nalakubara 261
(g) Ravana demanding Parvati from Siva 265

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