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The Kalika Purana

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1.1 In the religious tradition of India sruti (Vedas) and' smrti (what is remembered by human teachers) are the two- main branches of Sanskrit literature which are considered to be the source and authority of the age old religion. Both of them are described as the two commandments of God (sruti.smrti mamaivajne).

Manu, while declaring two more in addition to these two as the direct sources of dharma assigns the Vedas the first place, which is to be regarded as superior to all others.

Smrti in the widest acceptance of the term "includes the six vedangas, the sutras, both srauta and grhya, the law books of Manu and others, the itihasa; i.e, the Mahabharata, and the. Ramayana, the puranas, and the nitisastras,"

As the puranas come under smrti they are next only to the Vedas in their authority to dharma. The puranas are also regarded as the soul of the Vedas. (atma puranam vedanam). Both itihasa and puranas are the supplement and complement to the Vedas, and as such', the real meaning of .be Vedas is to be interpreted With the help of itiasa and purana, without the knowledge of which the meaning of the Vedas might be lost.

Historically speaking all the puranas are of later origin, i.e. latter than the Vedas, and developed on what have been adumbrated in the Vedas. Thus, 'he Puranas, in-a"Wide sense, are the elaborate commentaries on the vedic tenets. It is why itihasa and puranas are recommended for proper understand- ing the meaning of the saying of the Vedas.

However, we come across with another traditional view which holds that the puranas are older than the Vedas, .and these came out from the mouth of Brahma before the Vedas were emanated forth from him. Such an assertion, no doubt, goes against the traditionally accepted order and seems to be an anachronism. The significance of the saying may be traced in the fact that the oral tradition of the puranas is as old, or even older than the Vedas, Though the puranas were compiled in historic time the oral tradition was handed down in the society since time immemorial, which swelled with the passage of time. In fact; some puranas seem to preserve certain pre- Vedic traditions and rites.

The puranas are also regarded as the Vedas or the "fifth Veda'. The Brhadaranyakopanisad says that puranas sprang up from the remainder (ucchista) of Brahma after the destruc- of tion the Universe.

reah samani chandamsi Puranam yajusa saha ,
ucchistaj-jajnire sarve divi deva divisrtah //

The Visnu-P.3, the Vayu.P.4 and the Brahmanda.P.5 speak almost in the same tune that Vyasa produced the purana- samhita out of the materials in the form of akhyaykas, upakhyanas, gathas, and kalpajoktis (tradition handed down since time immemorial). Puranas are recognised as a branch of learning in the Brahmanas. The Satapatha.bra. speaks of giving instruction on puranas to disciples by the teacher (atha nayame'hani tan.upadisati puranam vedah 30'yamiti kimcit puranam asaksita).

The Gopatha-bra. also speaks about 'Itihasa-veda' and Puran Veda The divine origin ascribed to puranas and their placement along with the Vedas are responsible for the recog- nition of the puranas as vedangas. As such their study is regard. ed as obligatory without which a person, even though well versed in the Vedas is not considered as a skilful one'. The Puranas for the ages have been the mines not only of mytho- logy and cosmic theory of creation and destruction of the world but also the fountain head of hopes and ideals for the society, strength and inspiration of the people.

1.2. The puranas are encyclopedic in contents and exhaus- tive in treatment of subjects. They are both the documents of the socio- religious order of the contemporary society, and the philosophy of life to the people of their time and to the infuture generations. The Puranas used. to exercise tremendous in fiuence on Indian. minds through the ages all over the country, and even abroad, thus they used to serve as an unifying force. The puranas are always popular with the masses of this subcontinent because they are accessible and intelligible to one and all, became: they disseminate knowledge to the people of all strata of the. society tbrough• popular myths and legends, which directly appeal to the human heart,

It is precisely not clear when the puranas have been formed into a distinct class of literature and they have acquired.

certain characteristics as to their form. How these charac- teristics have developed? When such characteristics came to be regarded as essentials? To answer these questions the- entire Purana literature is to be studied in chronological order. There is no scope for such a study in this brief introduction to this purana.

1.3.. The puranas with their unmistakable characteristics- had been recognised as a distinct class of literature before the compilation of the well known Sanskrit lexicon, Nama- Iinganusasana by Amarasimha, who gives panca-laksana (five characteristics) as the synonym of puranam (puranam panca/aksanam ).

Ksirasvamin (11th cent. A.D,) in his commentary, Amarodghatana, on Amarakosa (lst kanda) quotes the five characteristics which a purana is to possess.

sargasca pratisargasca yamso manvaniarani ca/
vamsanucaritam caiya puranam panca-laksanam //

Presumably Ksirasvamin has taken this: verse from some purana or puranas which had been codified long before him. In eight of the aighteen puranas these five characteristics are found mentioned. The Skanda.P. while stating those five characteristics has introduced new elements such as the serial order of the puranas, extension and the destruction of the world, astronomy, etc'. H.T. Colebrooke in his edition of the Amarakosa states on pancalaksana.

"Our theogony, comprising past and future events, under five heads: tbe creation; the destructicn and the recreation of the worlds; genealogy. of gods and heroes; the reigns of Manus; and 'he transaction of their descendants".

M. Winterint his History of Indian Literature observes on this point:
“Every purana. is to have five characteristics (panca- laksana) that is to treat five subjects These five things only partly form the contents banded down to us; some contain much more than what is included in the 'five characteristics', while others scarcely touch upon these subjects, but deal with quite different things. What is significant almost all our puranas, their sectarian character, i.e. their being dedicated to some god or other, or, Visnu, is completely ignored by the old definition. (Vol. I. p.522). H.H. Wilson in the preface to his English translation of the Visnupurana (pp;. V-VI) observed thus :

"The lexicon of Amarasimha gives as a synonym of purana, 'panca-laksana' that which has five characteristics". However, Wilson goes on pointing out that non-adherence to these -characteristics by majority. of the puro11a3 and asserts that Visnu•p. alone may claim the distinction of conforming to these characteristics. "such, at any rate, were the constituent and characteristic portions of a purana in the days of Amara- simha, fifty•six years hefore the Chrisfian era, and if the puranas had undergone no change since his time, such as we expect to find them all. Do they conform to the description? Not exactly in anyone instance; to some it is utterly inapplic- able; to others it only partially applies. There is not one to which it belongs so entirely as to the Visnu.P., and it is one of the circumstances which gives to this work a more authentic character than most of its fellow can pretend".

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Chapter   Page Nos.
1. Purana and upapurana i
2. Kalika Purana v
3. The name vii
4. Printed edition ix
5. Manuscripts ix
6. Chapter and Chapter Division xi
7. kalika Purana quoted by the Smrti digest writers xii
8. Other Texts : Kalika Purana xiii
9. The Myth of earlier Kali (Kalika- Purana) xiv
10. Earlier Kalika Purana xvi
11. The date and the place of origin of the Kalika Purana xxvi
The Kalika Purana
1. The Birth of Kama (Cupid) 1
2. The Illusion of Brahma 6
3. The Birth of Rati 11
4. The Birth of Vasanta (Spring) 16
5. The Prayer of Mahamaya by Brahma 20
6. Prayer of Yognidra 28
7. Dialogue between Brahma and Madana 34
8. The Birth of Safi 37
9. Persuation of Hara for Marrying a wife 44
10. Mahadeva expresses his desire and seeks Sati 49
11. The Marriage procession of Siva 56
12. Identity of Brahma, Visnu and Mahesvara 62
13. Mitigation of the anger of Siva 68
14. Dalliance of Hara with Sati 72
15. Siva and Sati departure for their abode in the Himalayas 77
16. Siva dalliance with Sati and her death 82
17. The Destruction of the sacrifice of Daksa 89
18. Vijaya grief 94
19. Sandhya's preparation for penance 105
20. Deliverance of Chandra from the curse of Daksa 112
21. Candra's emancipation from the curse of Daksa 126
22. The birth story of Arundhanti 138
23. The Marriage of Vasistha with Arundhari 148
24. The Destruction of the world 160
25. The Varaha - Creation 171
26. The Creation of the world 177
27. Description of creation 179
28. Description of real and unreal 184
29. The Dialogue between Varha and Sarabha 186
30. The Fight between varaha and Sarabha 190
31. Emergence of Sacrifice from the body of Yajna - Varaha 205
32. Fish Incarnation 209
33. Fish Incarnation 213
34. The description of creation of the world 219
35. Abandonment of the Sarabha body by Isvara (Siva) 225
36. Removal of suffering of Prithvi 227
37. The birth story of Naraka 232
38. Anoinment of Naraka 236
39. Practising austerity by Naraka 249
40. The Story of Naraka 257
41. Narada carries the message 267
42. Burring of Kama by Mahadeva 274
43. Union of Kali with Hara 289
44. The dialogue between Kali and Hara 298
45. The description of Ardhanarisvara, God as half-women 303
46. The birth of Skanda 317
47. The birth of Chandrasekhara 325
48. The Description of the birth of Hara and Parvati as human being on the earth 333
49. The Story of the page Kapota and Citrangada 339
50. The birth story of Vetal and Bhairava 345
51. Emergence of Vetal and Bhairava 357
52. Worship of Mahamaya 374
53. Mahamaya-Kalpa or the procedural rites of Mahamaya 377
54. Ritual procedure of Mahamaya 380
55. Offering sacrifice of the Goddess 385
56. Worship of Mahamaya 394
57. Worship of Mahamaya Kamakhya 401
58. Worship of Kamakhya 417
59. Ceremony of Pavitraropana 423
60. Worship of Goddess Durga and killingof Mahisa 431
61. Glorification of Kamakhya 444
62. Kamakhya's ritual procedure 453
63. The Procedure of worshipping Tripura 464
64. The ritual procedure of worshipping Tripura 480
65. The ritual procedure of worshipping of goddess Sarada 486
66. Definition of mudras 492
67. The Rudhiradhyaya : description of offering bali 501
68. The description of offerings to the goddess 517
69. Description of cloths etc. For the goddess 523
70. The description of eatables (naivedya) 536
71. Circumbulation and paying obeisance 540
72. The glory of Kamakhya 543
73. Matrkanyasa i.e. placement of syllables on the body of the adept 550
74. Worship of three forms of Tripura 553
75. The mystery of Tripura mantra 572
76. Vetal and Bhairava attained Siddhi 580
77. Description of the glory of Jalpisa-pitha 590
78. Description of sacred places, hills and rivers of kamarupa 593
79. place of pilgrimage in Kamarupa 602
80. The description of holy rivers and places of pilgrimage of Kamarupa 616
81. The curse of Vasistha on Ugratara and others 631
82. The birth of Brahmaputra 635
83. The story of Rama, son of Jamadagni 641
84. The state polity 645
85. Description of good manners 657
86. The rules of Pusya-snana (ceremonial bath) on the day when the star pusya falls 663
87. The raising of Sakradhavaja 675
88. Visnu-Yajna 680
89. The emergence of Bhairava dynasty 686
90. Dynasty of Vetal 697
  Shloka Index 701

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