About The Book
Some Rgveda Samvada Suktas depend upon several ballads consisting of the dialogues classified into different types relating to love story, narrative poems, heroic akhyana etc.They are also taken as literary works to glean the origin of ancient epics and dramas.Several hymns are full of deep thought in relation of human life, spiritual outlook, historical personages and so on.The peculiarities in the ballads are noted as a prologue with a prayer to gods, concluding speech with blessing, climax on either comedic or tragic affair, artistic perception, literary excellence etc.
The Author has assumed such topics in the Samvada Suktas of the Rgveda with observations of Scholars, both eastern and western containing dialogue forms possessed by the Seer Poets for their contributions in literary and cultural works during the Aryan period to glean the origin of epics and dramas at a glance of their achievement.
About The Author
The Author at the M.A Examination in Sanskrit with specialization in Veda obtained third position in the first class from the University of Calcutta In l973. He excelled himself .by obtaining Ph.D Degree from the same University hi 1989 on the dissertation Pãnini and pratisakhya also published:
Other Publications including five books and research articles
in reputed journals credited him as a contribution of wisdom
in Vedic Iore. Three tit1es in Panini, Rgveda and
Suklayajurveda have been offered to him.
The Author distinguished himself by supervising four M. Phil candidates. He put fourteen years’ service to his credit as à Lecturer aid Reader in Sanskrit a the Gobardanga Hindu
Co1Ige. He also served Rabindra Bharati University as Reader in Vedic Studies for seven years. He is now a Reader in Sanskrit at Jadavpur University, Calcutta
The Rgvedic dialogue hymns are hereby taken at a glance on the literary works to glean the origin of ancient epics and dramas. There are several ballads containing the form of dialogue consisting of some hymns broken in various types viz, love story, narrative poem, heroic akhyãna. In the Rgveda Samhitã most of the Samvãda Süktas relate to the human life. Several hymns are full of deep thought in relation to the spiritual outlook. Such the narrative hymns relate to personal life. So according to the subject matter the dialogue hymns are classified into several groups to trace the glimpse of the origin of dramas and epics at the literary achievement.
The study of such the hymns classified into several groups may be confined in order to find some sorts of artistic skill by the Vedic Seer Poets possessed in their creation of epic and dramatic works at the same time.
There is an enumeration of individual ballads which are classified in some groups to trace the glimpse of the origin of dramas and epics with a hint that there are discussions on the traditional idea of Vedic akhyänas (myths), Itihäsas (narratives), Puränas (legends), Gäthäs (narasamsi and raibhi) etc and also on the importance of dialogue. There is a discussion of several controversial topics i.e.-(i) interpretation of Vrsakapi if a man-ape or favourite person or son of Indra (ii) identity of Parsu-Mãnavi (iii) Mudgalani’ s charioteering if a comic picture of horse chariot race, and case of Vispala if a mare or queen of king khela (iv) interpretation of RV X. 85.13 if a slaughter of cows to entertain the guests along with aghas or dowries (vahatu); agha> magha if a case of deliberate attempt to alter the reading of the said verse ; wedding taking place at the arjunis later known Phalgunis etc, if cows to be driven away at the constellations.
The topics enumerate specially the epic elements, dramatic elements found in the Samväda Suktas with the observation of Winternitz, Oldenberg and also Max Muller. There are detailed discussions in enumerating the value and weight of special portion of the verse under the prominent speeches in regard to social religious and daily life of the early Aryans. Some hymns serve parts of poetic art through their flowery language to describe similes and metaphors. Some sorts of artistic skill are possessed in the literary works of the Vedic seer Poets. Poems as the dialogue hymns are of frequent occurrences in Indian literature. They have already influenced poetic and dramatic poems consisting chiefly of conversations found in the Mahbhãrata, Purãnas and also the post-Vedic literature. The dialogue as a discourse, episode and legend is referred to in the Brãhmanas, Aranyakas and the Upanisads. The most endeared philosophical discourse is found in the CU VI.2 to relate the conversation between Aruni Uddãlaka and his son Svetaketu. There is also a reference to the Brhadäranyakopanisad to encounter with Yãjnavalkya in discourse with Brahman by the famous Philosopher Gargi. The references of such the legends are regarded in the Brãhmana literature in respect of myths etc.
The peculiarities in the Rgvedic ballads are manifold viz. Prologue with a prayer to gods, concluding speech later known Bharatavãkya with blessing, Characteristic status acknowledged socially like us as Seer Poets, comedic or tragic climax, artistic perception in the apt application of similes etc as ornamentation of hymns, traits of high literary excellence in some descriptions viz. Indrãni’s personal beauty (RV X.86.6,8), Urvasi (IV X.95. 1, 10) etc., Rhetoric i.e. Previous affairs of wooing in the legends of Pururavas and Urvasi (RV X.95.8,9), expression of deep pathos i.e. - bereavement of warrior in the Mudgala-hymn (RV X.102) etc.
In summing up such the observations it may be assumed that the peculiarities in the Vedic ballads as the dialogue forms contain the contributions of the Rgvedic Seer Poets in literary and cultural works in ancient Aryan Civilization gleaning the origin of ancient epics and dramas at a glance of their achievements.
In the Rgveda we find several ballads composed in the form of dialogue such as (1) X. 95 - Pururavas and UrvaT (2) X. l0-Yama and Yami (3) III. 103 - Visvämitra and two rivers (4) X. 108 - Saramä and Pani (5) X. 86 - Indra, Indrãni and Vrsäkapi (6) I. 179 - Agastya, Lopamudra and disciple (7) IV. 18 - Vãmadeva, Indra and Aditya; and also in the form of monologue (8) such as X. 40 - marriage hymn of Ghosã, X.34 - Gambler’s hymn, sarcastic hymn i.e. VII.103 - Frog Song; (9) in the form of narrative i.e.- X. 102 - cow victory hymn, Indra süktas I. 32, V. 32, VIII. 96, X. 67 etc. Oldenberg calls these hymns as Akhyäna hymns.
These dialogue hymns and ballads are classified into several groups according to their subject matter so as to trace the glimpse of the origin of dramas and epics such as (i) Vedic ballad poetry love stories and union through marriage (ii) Narrative poems relating to personal life (iii) Heroic narratives (iv) Misc. Poems.
In order to trace the origin of dramas and epics we are to go through these dialogue hymns or ballad poetry and other hymns having diversified elements serving some parts of drama or an epic though these are not categorically designated as dialogue hymns or ballads proper. Some verses of monologue such as gambler’s song X. 34, marriage hymns of Ghosä X. 40, so-called sarcastic verse i.e. - Frog Song VII. 103 are worthy of being valued as works of poetic art generally mingled with some pearls of lyric poetry appealing to us through their fine comprehension of the beauties and artistic skill, and flowery language to describe similes and metaphors to serve for the ornamentation of some fragments of dramatic and epic poetry.
There are discussions on the traditional idea of Vedic Akhyänas (myths), Itihãsas (narratives), Puränas (legends), Gathãs (Närasamsi and Raibhi), Anväkhyana, Rk and Gãthã as forms of verse, and their distinction.
The importance of dialogue as a method of expressing and interpreting some items of discourse, episodes and legends is generally accepted in the Brãhmanas, Aranyakas and Upanisads. References of such dialogues on narratives are also discussed. M