About The Author
Vidyalankara, Sastra-Chudaamani, Sangita-Kalaratna.
Professor Saligrama Krishna Ramachandra Rao is a well-known scholar who combines traditional learning with
modern research. Well-versed in Sanskrit, Pali,
Ardharnagadhi and several modern Indian languages and
acquainted with Tibetan and some European languages,
he has written extensively on Vedanta, Buddhism, Jainism,
Indian Culture, Art and Literature.
In his professional career, however, he was a Professor
of Psychology. He has headed the Department of Clinical
Psychology in the National Institute of Mental Health and
Neurosciences, Bangalore,-and the Department of Indian
Culture in the Callison College Study Centre of the University
of the Pacific (U.S.A). At present, he is the Senior Associate
of National Institute of Advanced Studies (Indian Institute
of Science), Bangalore, and Guest Faculty, Indian Institute
of Management, Bangalore.
He has been Member of Karnataka State Lalitha Kala
Academi and Sangita Nritya Academi; he has served on
the Agama Board (Govt. of Karnataka). He is President of
Silpa-Kala Pratishtana. The Govt, of Karnataka has honoured
him with the 1986 Rajyotsava Award. He is on the
Advisory Committee of the T.T.D. He has received awards
from Lalita-Kala Academi and Sang ita Nritya Academi.
He has written more than sixty books in Kannada, a
play in Sanskrit, and a Pali commentary on a Buddhist
classic. One of his books on Iconography in Kannada has
won the State Sahitya Academi Award, as also another of
his books on the Tirupati Temple.
Among his numerous English publications are Three
Vols., of Encyclopaedia of Indian Medicine, (Popular
Prakashan, Mumbai), Tibetan Tantrik Tradition and Tibetan
Meditation (Arnold Heinemann, Delhi), Consciousness In
Advaita, and a series of six books on Indian Temples (IBH
Prakashana, Bangalore). Origins of Indian Thought
(Bangalore University); Kalpatharu Research Academy has
published his Pratlma-Kosha in six Vols., Agama-Kosha
in twelve Vols, Art and Architecture of Indian Temples
in three Vols and Navagraha-Kosha in two Vols.
He is also a musicologist, a sculptor and painter, and
has held some one-man shows. He presided over the
Music Conference of Gayana-Samaja in Bangalore for the
The Kalpatharu Academy, Bangalore, (established in 1981) is proud to present
to the world of scholars and students of Indology the second volume of its
prestigious publication Rgveda-Darsana, which will run into more than Thirty
volumes. This is a major project under the 'Bharatiya-Sarnskriti-Sarvasva-Kosha'
series. The first volume has been very well received by indologists all over the
world, and we hope the same reception will be accorded to this and the
subsequent volumes. It is our purpose to project the traditional approach to the
Vedic studies, which has been sadly neglected all along. We are beholden to the
eminent scholar, Vidyalankara, Sastra-Chudamani, Sangita-Kalaratna, Vedanta-Nidhi, Prof. S.K. Ramachandra Rao for having undertaken kindly to materialize
this dream of the Academy.
We are immensely indebted to the present Peethadhipati, Sri Sri Sri Bharati-
Tirtha mahaswamiji of the Sringeri Sarada-Peetham, whose benign blessings
have been our strength and succor. We are also indebted to Shri V.R.
Gowrishankar, Administrator of Sri Sringeri Sarada Peetham and Chairman of
Kalpatharu Research Academy, for his unfailing and constant interest and help
in all our activities.
Also we are deeply beholden to the authorities of the Ministry of Human
Resources Development, Govt. of India for their generous financial assistance.
We also thank the Govt. of Karnataka for their support in our endeavor.
We thank the Omkar Offset Printers, Bangalore for producing this volume neatly
The need for a fresh edition of Rgveda was felt, as none of the extant modern editions
or translations of this corpus appears to follow the traditional approach which was
prevalent in the country before the advent of the English and European influences.
The approach relies on Yaska's Nirukta, Saunaka's Btheddeveta and the early
Bhashayas. It is characterized by a three-fold interpretation: adhi-yajna (ritualistic),
adhi-daivata (theological) and adhyatrna (symbolic and philosphical). It became my
intention to highlight the traditional approach, when I realized that this is the only
valid method available for understanding the true import of the Veda. While the first
volume was introductory in nature, this volume explains in detail the significance
of each of the three traditional interpretations; adhiyajna, adhidaivata and adhyatma.
Explanations of the mantras of Rgveda in accordance with these three interpretations
will begin with the next volume.
I am indebted to Daivajna Sri K.N. Somayaji for having set me on this enterprise,
which has become most satisfying to me, and I acknowledge my gratitude to the
pontiff of Sringeri, Sri Sri Sri Bharati Tirtha Mahasvami, who is the chief patron
of Kalpatharu Research Academy, which has been my principle publisher for the
past several years; and to Sri V.R. Gowrishankar, the Administrator of the said
My friends in Omkar Offest Printers, Venkatesh Babu and Nagendra have spared
no pains in making this volume elegant and excellent; and I thank them sincerely.
My friends Sri c.L. Purshotham Rao and Sri B.S. Vishwanath Rao have helped in
correcting the proofs; I am grateful to them.
||The Adhi-Yajna Approach
||The Adhi-Dvaita Approach
||The Adhyama Approach
||The Tritaya Approach