Indus - Sarasvati (Harappan) Civilization vis-à-vis Rigveda

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About the Book

The misrepresentations about the identity of the Rigveda Aryan people , and the western propagated theories of the Aryan invasion of or immigration to India, have been the subject of much discussion by both national and international thinkers in the recent years. The Subject is serious and deeply linked to identity, and also concerns what we teach through our History Text books.

This Gyan – Samhita’ brings to you the papers presented by a galaxy of distinguished national and international scholars., who participated at the International conference to discuss various aspect like the origin and identity of the Arayans, the Indus- Sarasvati Civilization, and the Archaeological findings that demolish the theory of Aryan Invasion of India.

Thus, a spatial chronological study of the Rigveda data on the hand and of the rigveda data on the one hand and of the Indus –sarasvati civilization on the other, to find linkages between the R?igveda and the Indus – Saraswati civilization was taken up. There was general consensus, and it was firmly established that the Rigveda people were indigenous and neither ‘ invades’ nor ‘ immigrants’.

The Result of the textual researches and archaeological discovers have not yet reached the International forum, much less the text books. It was felt that the time is ripe to hold an International Seminar on the subject, so that the new Knowledge is duly disseminated not only within India but also beyond its frontiers . the Knowledge sharing by a large number of world renowned Archaeologists, Historians, Philosophers Ideologists make this a very valuable book of reference and study.

 

About the Author

Dr. B.R. Mani (b. 1955), Director General of national Museum, is a renowned field archaeologist numismatist and art critic, who has served as additional Director General in the Archaeological Survey of India. A first class MA from Banaras Hindi University, Altekar and BHU Gold Medals. His Ph D from BHU and central Institute of Higher Tibetan studies, then joined the ASI as Deputy Superintending Archaeologist. A distinguished career spanning Mahrashtra, Goa, Delhi and Jammu and Kashmir , discovery explorations at large number of archaeological sites at Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Haryana , He has directed almost 19 excavation projects, significant being Lal Kot (Delhi) , Salimarg (Delhi), Muhammad Nagar and Harnol (Haryana), Siswania, Sankisa, Ayodhya, Lathiya (U.P.) and Kanispur and Ambaran (J&K). from 2013-15 he re-excavated the sites of kapilavastu, Rajghat and Sarnath (UP). A member of various national and international organizations, he has travelled to European, American and Asian countries, he has four books and about 200 researches papers to his credit. He is general Secretary of the Indian archaeological Society, and edits Purattava and ancient India.

 

Introduction

For nearly a century has been orchestrated that:

I. The Rigveda is no older than 1200 BCE;

II. The Rigveda people wee nomads; and

III. They invaded India from the north- west and destroyed the Harappen civilization.

In respect of (i) above , it may be sated that recent linguistic studies of the Rigveda have shown that it is assignable to the 3rd – 4th millennia BCE, if not earlier. This conclusion is duly supported by the evidence of field archaeology, hydrology and radiocarbon method of dating.

As regards the assumption (No. ii, above) that the Rigveda people were nomads , wandering from place to place, it need to be emphasized that a fresh study of Rigveda itself makes it clear that these people had regular settlement, some of which wee even fortified . they carried on trade not only by land-routes but also by the sea. Their ships were sometimes propelled by as many as a hundred oars. In Respect of governance, they had a regular hierarchy of rulers, including a sarmata (emperor), rajas (King), rajakas ( King Lings) . All this evidence fully nullifies the misplaed belief that the Rigvedic people were nomads.

In respect of assumption no. iii. above , an in depth study of all available archaeological data brings out clearly that there is no evidence of whatsoever of an invasion of any of the Harappen sites in the country. Even the so called 'massacre' at Mohenjo-Daro has been proved to be a myth. Further, a study of human remains by experts in anthropology shows that no new people entered India between 4,500 BCE and 800 BCE. Hence, the theory of an 'Aryan invasion' falls to the ground.

Finding that the' Aryan invasion' story has been completely debunked, some scholars, wedded to the idea that the Aryans must nevertheless have come from outside, advanced an alternate theory, viz., they 'immigrated' into India from the Bactria-Margiana archaeological complex (BMAC) of central Asia. This story too has been examined in great details and has been found to be baseless. The most important argument against this theory is that no element whatsoever of the BMAC has ever been found east of the Indus, which was the habitat of the Vedic people.

A series of excavation carried out in the ancient Sarasvati valley, for example kalibangan, Banawali, Rakhigarhi, kunal and Bhirrana, has established that the Indus- Sarasvati Civilization (also known as the Indus or Harappen Civilization) is deeply rooted in this valley, going back in its formative stages to circa 5th millennium BCE, as shown by the carbon -14 dates for Bhirrana. This civilization spread westward up to the Indus on the West.

Verses 5 and 6 of Sukta 75 of Mandala X of the Rigveda shows that the Rigvedic people occupied the territory between the upper reaches of the Ganga - Yamuna on the east and the Indus on the west. Further, as noted earlier, the period of the Rigveda was between the 5th Millennium BCE and 3rd Millennium BCE.

Thus, a spatial chronological study of the Rigvedic data on the one hand and of the Indus-Sarasvati civilization on the other clearly established that the Rigveda and the Indus - Sarasvati civilization are but the two faces of the same coin. In other words, the Rigvedic people were indigenous and neither 'invaders' nor 'immigrants'.

The result of the above mentioned textual researches archaeological discoveries have not yet reached the International forum, much less the text- books. It is felt that the time is ripe to hold an International Seminar on the Subject, so that the new knowledge is duly disseminated not only within India but also beyond its frontiers.

In this Seminar will be participating a large number of distinguished scholars from India as well as abroad -the USA and Europe.

 

Contents

 

  Introduction i
  Summary of Proceedings v
  List of Figures xv
  List of Plates xix
  List of Contributors xxv
1. Who Could have been the Authors of the Indus-Sarasvati (Harappan) Civilization? -An Enquiry 1- B. B. Lal 1
2. Discovering the Sarasvati River: From 1855 to 2014 - Michel Danino 15
3. Vedic Sarasvati - Its Discovery Through Scientific Signatures Implanted In Himalaya and Present Day Status of Oblivion - VMK Puri 29
4. Geographical Entity ofVedic Sarasvati River in Relation to Harappan Settlements in Northwest India - B. K. Bhadra 47
5. Evolution of Ha rap pan Culture at Bhirrana - Nandini Bhattacharya Sahu and Prabash Sahu 59
6. Harappan Planning and Architecture - R.S. Bisht 65
7. Harappan Culture in the Ghaggar Basin with Special Reference to Farmana- Recent Perspective - Vasant Shinde 73
8. Some Major Contributions ofKalibangan to Our Knowledge of the Indus-Sarasvati (Harappan) Civilization - B.B. Lal 81
9. Vedic Sepulchral Structures - B. R. Mani 87
10. Rise of Civilization in the Sarasvati Valley and Adjoining Indus Region - K.N Dikshit 91
11. Recent Trends in Harappan Studies of Gujarat - V. H. Sonawane 111
12. The Eastern Domain of Harappan Culture in Northern India with Special Reference to Uttar Pradesh - K.N. Dikshit 127
13. The Problems ofRigvedic Chronology - Bhagwan Singh 137
14. Astronomical Dating of Rig-Veda - Ashok K. Bhatnagar 143
15. Literary Evidence in the Rigveda: Indications ofa Great Ancient Culture on both Spiritual and Material Levels - David Frawley 157
16. Correlating The Rigvedic Ideological and Harappan Urban Processes - Shivaji Singh 165
17. The Homeland and Movements of the Vedic Aryas in India: A New Geo-historical Perspective and Its Historical Significance - Shiva G Bajpai 183
18. Pratyati Amavasuh Pravavraja (Amavasu Migrated Westwards) - B.B. Lal 187
19. Most Indian Cultural and Religious Traits have their Origin in the Indus-Sarasvati Civilization 193 - Vishnu Kant 193
20. Why Linguistics Necessarily holds the Key to the Solution of the Indo-European Homeland Question - Koenraad Elst 199
21. The Politics of the Harappan Studies - Dilip K Chakrabarti 225
22. Politicization of Indian Archeology - Yvette Cia ire Rosser 239
23. Address of Valedictory Session (Chairperson) - Yellapragada Sudershan Rao 243
24. Sapta Sindhusu' - The Land of Seven Rivers: A New Interpretation and Its Historical Significance - Shiva G Bajpai and Shashi Tiwari 269
  Special Comments  
  Lokesh Chandra  
  Plates 273

 

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