Figures of Speech in The Atharvaveda

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About The Book

The present work contains a detailed study of the Atharvaveda, it deals not about the poetic-beauty of the fourth veda but also to the different shades of its subject matter. This present work has emphasized the poetic-mind of the ancient-seers and depicts that these Vedic Rsis were fully aware of the sentiments of poetry which later on developed in the minds of the rhetoricians. This developed mind of the sages can fully acknowledged in the different examples of Alamkaras presented in this work.

About The Author

Dr. Saroj Narang, was born on April 5, 1947, at than esar in District Kurukshetra she completed studies in Delhi and did her B. A. (Hons.) & M. A. in Sanskrit from Zakir Hussein College, University of Delhi. She got National Merit Scholarship for 2 years. From Ministry of Education. Govt. of India in 1967-1968. Dr. S Narang's thesis for Ph. D got Completed in 1971 and hence she started her professional carrier in Mata Sundari College, University of Delhi, on 6th Sept. 1971. At present, she has 29 years, teaching-experience Along with teaching experience, she has experience of many other academic and Non-academic activities of the University. Dr. S. Narang also got her Diploma in German Language from University of Delhi, in 1970 and has a good knowledge of German Language.

Preface

I have great pleasure in introducing to the distinguished scholars, general readers as well as students, the work entitle "Fiures of speech in the Atharvaveda". It goes withoug saying that the Atharvaveda occupies the most prominent place among the four Vedas on account of its peculiar subject-matter. It does not contain only the invocation and prayers to the deities as do the other Vedas. It contains also the magi formulae, the formulae for the holy-magic, the Atharvan and the formulae for the hostile magic or black-magic the Angiras. So the Atharvaveda, also known as Atharvangirasah contains sever hundred and thirty one hymns consisting of Six thousand verses where a large number of Mantras serve as charms or incantations, malefic or beneficial. This veda, also has songs or spells for the healing of the diseases, spells which are invocations or prayers to herbs. Some astronomical-matter, sorcery and with craft as practised by the people in its time also find mention in it. Along with its subject matter, the language, the poetry, the religion, the mythology, the philosophy, the medicine, the rituals etc in the veda, all need to be specially mentioned as they all are of equal importance.

The present-words deals particularly with the language and the poetry in this veda. It has bee found that all the poetic elements like 'Riti', Dhavani, Alamkara etc. which are required for a good piece of poetry can be seen in the language of the Atharvaveda. The poetic-beauty in the hymns of the A. V is spontaneous and not brought with strain on the part of the sages. The poetic charm comes up naturally and the "Rsi" makes no conscious effort to bring out artificial beauty as is sometimes seen in the later classical Sanskrit literature. An attempt is, therefore, done here to depict the various kinds of 'alamkaras' in the A. V. This study of the figures of speech in based on the views of principal poeticians like Mammata, Jayadeva, Visvanatha and Appayadiksita.

'Alambaroti iti Alamkarah' is the established fact which has been accepted by all the rhetoricians right from Bhamaha on words. The figures of speech not only ornament the poetry but produce vivid images with varied shades of colours. There is a large number of requirements which are fulfilled by 'alamkaras' in order to lead the poetry twords sublimity. These requirements can be summed up in the following ways:

(1) Ornamentation of the poetry.
(2) Providing brevity to the poetic language.
(3) Providing flow and grandeur to the poetic description.
(4) Providing images just libe a painter does in painting. The figures of speech have been divided by the rhetoricians into 3 parts- (1) Figure based upon words (2) figures based and meanings (3) Figures based upon both words and meanings. In the A. V. all the avove-mentioned categories are available and the present work clearly mentions with examples all the categories. It has been proved here that the Atharvanic sages were well-versed with the loftiness of the words, their beautiful meanings and their various usages in poetry. The had a commanding power of communication and the knowledge of its values. I hope, this work will be appreciated by all its readers.

Preface iii-iv
Acknowledgments v
Scheme of Transliteration vi
Chapter I : Introductory 1-57
(a) Importance of the topic
(b) Identity of the Vedas; The Vedas as poetic composition
(c) Atharva and the other names of the Atharvadeda; the problem of its recognition; its subjectmatter' Division of hymns; Style
(d) Alamkara, its meaning, role, kinds and importance in poetry
(e) Applicability of Alamkaras to the Atharvaveda
Chapter II : Sabdalamkaras in the Atharvaveda 58-81
(a) The definition of a Sabdalamkara
(b) Sabdalamkara and Arhalamkara
(c) The number of Sabdalamkaras
(d) Sabdalamkaras in the Atharvaveda
(Anuprasa, Yamaka and Slesa)
Chapter III : Arthalamkaras in the Atharvaveda 82-253
(a) The definition of an Arthalamkara
(b) The development of Arthalamkaras
(c) Arthalamkaras in the Atharvaveda-Upama, Ananvaya, Rupaka, Ullekha, Utpreksa, Atisayokti, Karakadipaka, Vyatireka, Sahokti, Vinokti, Samasokti, Parikara, Vyajastuti, Paryayokta, Kavyalinga, Vibhavana, Visesokti Virodha and virodhabhasa, Asamgati, Sama, Visesa, Karanamala, Paryaya, Uttara, Samuaya, Svabhavokti, Udatta, Pratisedha, Sambhavana, Sabdapramana, Atyukti, Lokokti, Avrttidipaka
Chapter IV. : Misralamkara and Ubhayalamkara 254-274
(a) Distinction between the terms Misra and Ubhaya
(b) Samsrsti and Sankara as Misralamkaras
(c) Punruktavadabhasa as an Ubhayalamkara in the Atharvaveda
Conclusion 275-279
Appendix 280-282
Bibliography 283-288