An Evaluation of the Vedantic Critique of Buddhism

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Preface

This book represents an attempt to compare the critique of Buddhism as set forth in the interpretations of Sankara, Ramanuja and Madhva to the Brahma-sutra II.2.18.32, with the positions actually elaborated by the Buddhists in their own texts. It is also an attempt to compare the conflicting interpretations of the three commentators. In order to provide a background for the study of these sutras, however, it is necessary to explore the following topics: A) The Text; B) The Three Vedantins; C) Arguments Among the Buddhist Realists-Sarvastivadins and Sautrantikas; D) Vijnanavadins and the Logicians; E) The Madhyamikas; F) The Later Logicians; G) Sankara's "crypto"-Buddhism.

From the Jacket

This book represents a comparison of the critique of Buddhism as set forth in the interpretations of Sankara, Madhva, and Ramanuja to the sutras of the second section (adhyaya) of the Brahma-sutras concerned with the refutation of Buddhism, with the positions actually elaborated by the Buddhists in their own texts. An attempt is also made to compare the conflicting interpretations of the three commentators to these particular sutras, in accordance with the philosophical approach unique to each commentator.

The book is divided into two parts. The first part consists of an Introductory Background. It includes a brief description of the Brahma-sutras as a text and summarizes the philosophical positions of the three commentators. The second part proceeds sutra by sutra to study the three commentators' interpretations of the particular sutras directed against the Buddhists.

Gregory J. Darling received his Ph. D. from the Department of Religion at Columbia University in New York City in 1982. He specialized in Indic Religion. His advisor was Alex Wayman, Professor of Sanskrit at Columbia University and author of many books and articles on Buddhism.

Contents

Preface vii
Acknowledgements ix
Part I: INTRODUCTORY BACKGROUND
A. THE TEXT 3
B. THE THREE VEDANTINS 9
C. THE BUDDHIST REALISTS 15
1. Causation 19
(a) Dependent Origination and the Aggregates 19
(b) Causeless Destruction akasmika vinasa 26
2. Momentariness 28
3. The Unconstructed (asamskrta) Dharmas 36
(a) The Cessations (nirodha) 36
(b) Space (akasa) 44
D. VIJNANAVADA AND THE LOGICIANS 47
1. Knowledge (jnana) and the Knowable (jneya) 49
2. The "Self" of the Vijnanavadins 50
3. The Dream and Waking States 51
4. Habit-Energies vasana 53
5. The Ideation-Store (alaya-vijnana) 56
6. Separation of Authorities (pramana-vyavastha) 58
7. Memory (smrti) 59
8. The Three Factors 60
9. Causality of the Samskaras 61
10. Introspective Perception (svasamvedana-pratyaksa) 63
E. THE MADHYAMIKAS 67
F. THE LATER LOGICIANS 73
(a) The Atom (anu) 75
(b) Ratnakirti on Momentariness 78
(c) Causation 82
(d) Destruction (vinasa) and Disruption (pradhvamsa) 85
(e) Remembrance (smrti) and Recognition pratyabhijna 90
G. SANKARA'S "CRYPTO"-BUDDHISM 95
1. The "crypto"-Buddhism of Gaudapada 99
2. Sankara's Association with the Gaudapada School 105
(a) Sankara's Relationship with the Gaudapada School 105
(b) The Authorship of the Gaudapda-karikabhasya 109
3. The Characterization of Sankara as "crypto"-Buddhist 118
4. The Two Truths 123
(a) The Two Truths in Relation to Gaudapada 123
(b) The Two Truths in Relation to Sankara 125
5. Nescience (Avidya) 132
6. Name-and-formation (nama-rupa) in Sankara's Thought 145
Part II: A STUDY OF THREE COMMENTARIES TO BRAHMA-SUTRA II..18.32
A. Introduction 159
B. Brahma-sutra II.2.18:
"samudaya ubhayahetuke' pi tadapraptih" 165
1. Sankara's Interpretation 167
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 172
3. Madhva's Interpretation 176
C. Brahma-sutra II.2.19:
"itaretarc-pratyayatvad iti cen notpattimatra-nimittatvat" 181
1. Sankara's Interpretation 183
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 187
3. Madhva's Interpretation 190
D. Brahma-sutra II.2.20:
"uttarotpade ca purvanirodhat" 197
1. Sankara's Interpretation 199
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 204
3. Madhva's Interpretation 206
E. Brahma-sutra II.2.21
"asati pratijnoparodho yaugapadyam anyatha" 211
F. Brahma-sutra II.2.22:
"pratisamkhya' pratisamkhya-nirodhapraptir avicchedat" 219
1. Sankara's Interpretation 221
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 223
3. Madhva's Interpretation 226
G. Brahma-sutra II.2.23:
"ubhayatha ca dosat" 233
1. Sankara's Interpretation 235
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 236
3. Madhva's Interpretation 238
H. "Brahma-sutra II.2.24:
"akase cavisesat" 243
1. Sankara's Interpretation 245
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 248
3. Madhva's Interpretation 250
I. Brahma-sutra II.2.25:
anusmrtesca" 257
1. Sankara's Interpretation 259
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 264
3. Madhva's Interpretation 271
J. Brahma-sutra II.2.26 :
"nasato 'drstatvat" 279
1. Sankara's Interpretation 281
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 284
3. Madhva's Interpretation 288
K. Brahma-sutra II.2.27:
1. Sankara's Interpretation 295
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 295
3. Madhva's Interpretation 297
I. Brahma-sutra II.2.28
"nabhava upalabdheh" 303
1. Sankara's Interpretation 305
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 320
3. Madhva's Interpretation 323
M. Brahma-sutra II.2.29
"vaidharmyac ca na svapnadivat" 329
1. Sankara's Interpretation 331
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 333
3. Madhva's Interpretation 335
N. Brahma-sutra II.2.30:
"na bhavo 'nupalabdheh" 339
1. Sankara's Interpretation 341
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 343
3. Madhva's Interpretation 345
O. Brahma-sutra II.2.31:
"ksanikatvac ca" 353
1. Sankara's Interpretation 355
2. Madhva's Interpretation 359
P. Brahma-sutra II.2.32:
"sarvathanupapattesca" 361
1. Sankara's Interpretation 363
2. Ramanuja's Interpretation 364
3. Madhva's Interpretation 368
Conclusion 369
Bibliography 383
Index 389

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